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Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Woman Who Made Change

HistoryHarriet Beecher Stowe: A Woman Who Made Change

One book, written by a woman from New England, was more powerful than the entire southern United States. Its influence was the catalyst for the war that divided America: the Civil War. This book was called Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The author of this influential work is Harriet Beecher Stowe. She was an undeclared abolitionist and had strongly anti-slavery views (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe”). She is most famous for her writing. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is considered to be one of the factors that contributed to the start of the Civil War (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Upon meeting Stowe, Abraham Lincoln said: “So you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war” (Biography.com Editors). Her influence remains to this day, and she helped to shape the modern world. The key to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s success as an abolitionist was her extensive education and ability to write intellectually and emotionally.

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s life as a young child, and family, set the foundation for her success as an anti-slavery writer. Harriet Beecher Stowe was born on June 14, 1811, in Litchfield Connecticut (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Almanac). She was born in the Presbyterian parsonage of the church where her father preached (Cavendish). She was the seventh child of her mother Roxana Foote (Biography.com Editors). Her father was the famous preacher Lyman Beecher. He was an abolitionist and regularly spoke out against slavery in his sermons (“Meet the Beecher Family.”). His views influenced Stowe and her siblings a great deal. Roxana Foote Beecher was the first wife of Lyman Beecher (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). Unfortunately, Foote died from tuberculosis when Stowe was five years old. This led to Stowe being cared for by her eldest sister, Catherine Beecher, and her father. This major loss early in Stowe’s life may have helped her to understand some of the pain slaves experienced. After the death of her father’s first wife, Lyman Beecher quickly remarried. Although Stowe had a positive relationship with her stepmother, she never became very close to her (Cavendish). Stowe’s family strongly believed in equal education for all people, so Stowe and her sisters got the same amount of schooling as their brothers (“Meet the Beecher Family.”). This was unusual for their time, but it made Harriet get a very good education and helped her to be successful. As a child, Stowe was friends with a few African American people. Harriet became close to Candice, her mother’s servant who did laundry, and Dinah, the servant of Stowe’s aunt Harriet Foote. Candice was devoted to Stowe’s mother, and when Foote died, Candice was very sorrowful. After their mother’s death, Stowe and her siblings turned to Candice for support when they were sad. Candice and Dinah left an impression on Stowe that lasted to adulthood. They show up over and over again as main characters in Stowe’s books (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.”). This connection gave Stowe insights into the hardships that African Americans faced. The experiences and family influences that Stowe had when she was a young child set the stage for her emotionally deep and accessible writing. 

Stowe got an excellent education as a young adult and this allowed her to be a successful abolitionist. In 1816, When Stowe was five, she enrolled in Ma’am Killbourne’s school in Litchfield Connecticut (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). Here she began her long journey through education that was as extensive as what upper-class men got in the nineteenth century. While at this school Stowe began to gain an interest in writing. She found a copy of Arabian Nights, and at once took an interest in literature. Her father even began to allow her to use his library. Stowe remained at Ma’am Kilbourne’s School until she was ten years old. She then transferred to Litchfield Academy where she quickly became the valedictorian of her class. When Stowe was twelve years old she wrote an essay titled “can the immortality of the Soul be proved by the light of nature” (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). This was one of the first things that Stowe wrote and she won first place in an essay contest with it (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). When Stowe was thirteen her eldest sister Catherine started a progressive school for teenage girls. It was called the Hartford Female Seminary, and Stowe promptly enrolled in this school. Stowe began writing poetry and thus diversified the types of writing that she was capable of. She exhibited knowledge far beyond her classmates, so her sister made Stowe teach a class to students her age (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). Stowe’s early success as a student helped her to write intellectually later in life. Stowe left the school when she was twenty-one, in 1832, when her father was invited to be the president at the Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati Ohio. He decided to become the president, and the family moved to Cincinnati. Here Catherine Beecher started another school for girls which she called the Western Female Institute. Harriet took classes at this school for a few years (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). It was here that she completed her formal education, but over the course of her life, she never stopped gaining knowledge. The extensive education that Harriet Beecher Stowe received allowed her to be successful as an abolitionist because it caused her to be able to write intellectually.

While in Cincinnati Stowe discovered that she wanted to be a writer. After she graduated from the Western Female Institute, Stowe was hired by Catherine Beecher to be a teacher at the school (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). Stowe enjoyed this job very much. It was during this teaching job that Stowe co-authored her first book with her sister. This book was called Primary Geography for Children and was used at the school as their geography textbook for a long time (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Stowe enjoyed writing this book, so in 1833 she wrote a short article about punctuation and grammar. She received fifty dollars for this piece (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). Soon after, Stowe wrote a story called “A New England Tale”. She was able to successfully sell this book (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). With these literary successes, Stowe found that she wanted to make writing her career. This decision caused Stowe to have years of writing experience when she wrote her greatest work: Uncle Tom’s Cabin. 

After moving to Cincinnati, Stowe had an experience that caused her to solidify her pre-existing anti-slavery views and become an abolitionist. Cincinnati Ohio is on the Ohio River. This river, in the pre Civil War time, marked the boundary between the slaveholding south and the north U.S. Although Stowe had seen African-American indentured servants on a plantation in Long Island, she had never seen a real southern slave plantation. Stowe crossed the Ohio River into Kentucky in about the year 1833. She saw the life of the slaves in the cabins (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.”). Stowe witnessed the horrible conditions that slaves were forced to live in and confirmed her suspicions that slavery was not at all a benevolent institution. Stowe was horrified by what she saw and most likely decided then to be an abolitionist. This Kentucky cotton plantation provided the setting for Uncle Tom’s Cabin (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe). This visit was the turning point for Stowe and was where she decided that she wanted to help to end slavery. Even though Stowe was obviously anti-slavery, and her beliefs were that of an abolitionist she never formally admitted to her position. Stowe wrote in her letters that she was “was antislavery in her sympathies, but she was not a declared abolitionist” (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe). Stowe most likely did not want to limit her options by formally saying that she was an abolitionist, but she certainly was one. The experience that caused Stowe to be firmly anti-slavery in her views was her visit to a southern slave plantation.

Harriet Beecher Stowe had an early start to her anti-slavery views. After her mother, Roxana Foote, passed away Stowe was very sad and distraught. Stowe became depressed, and her family wanted to get her away from the house so that she would feel better (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Stowe was sent to visit her aunt and grandmother on a Long Island plantation. This plantation’s workers were African-American indentured servants. Stowe witnessed how these servants were not treated the same as other people (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). This inequality bothered her greatly and sparked the flame for her abolitionist writings (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Although the main point where Stowe became an abolitionist is considered to be her visit to the slave plantation, Stowe was already anti-slavery when she was five. The inequality that African-Americans faced did not seem right to her, so she wished to end the enslavement of people. Her father’s views also rubbed off on her. Lyman Beecher was a strong abolitionist. He believed that slavery was evil and immoral. This influenced Harriet and her siblings (Biography.com Editors). Stowe’s was anti-slavery from the start.

In Cincinnati, Stowe gained many of the experiences that allowed her to be a successful abolitionist writer and to write emotionally. Stowe lived in Cincinnati for eighteen years, and this time greatly influenced her life. The aforementioned influential visit to a Kentucky slave plantation took place during this time. Also, the proximity of Ohio to the south was very helpful to Stowe. A common route for escaped slaves was to cross the Ohio river into Cincinnati. Stowe was able to talk to escaped slaves about their dreadful experiences in the institution of people-owning. This gave her many ideas for the plot, and characters of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the book that made Stowe famous (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary) (—. “Harriet Beecher Stowe.”). 

There were many influences that interested Stowe in the anti-slavery cause. Stowe’s brother, Henry Beecher went to New Orleans and traveled on the Mississippi River. He saw close up the evils of slavery. He told Harriet about what he had seen, and his tales gave Stowe a better idea about slavery (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). In addition, Stowe was influenced by the prominent, and radical, abolitionist Theodore Weld. Weld was a student at the Lane Theological Seminary which was a “hotbed of anti-slavery sentiment” (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). Weld interested Stowe and her brother Henry Beecher, in the anti-slavery cause (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). The connection that Stowe had to a place where many abolitionists studied, Lane Theological Seminary, made her interested in helping to bring about the cessation of slavery. 

While in Cincinnati Stowe joined the Semi-Colon Club. Here she met like-minded people with whom she could discuss intellectual matters (Biography.com Editors). Many people in this club were abolitionists and they influenced Stowe. Salmon P. Chase, a member of the Semi-Colon club introduced Stowe to the movement that wanted to end slavery (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). Calvin Ellis Stowe was also a member of this club, and he taught at Lane Theological Seminary. Eliza Stowe, Stowe’s wife, was a friend of Harriet Beecher Stowe. After Eliza Stowe died, Harriet Beecher Stowe began to take care of Calvin Stowe. In January 1836 Stowe married Stowe. Calvin Stowe was an abolitionist and he greatly influenced Harriet. They were very like-minded on the topic of equal rights (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). Together they became part of the anti-slavery movement. Harriet was now at the center of abolition.

 In Cincinnati there was another event that enabled Stowe to be a great writer. In Ohio, Stowe gave birth to six of her seven children (Michals). Unfortunately, in 1849, one of Stowe’s children died in the cholera epidemic (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). Stowe was devastated because of this loss (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). But something good did come from this sad event. In Uncle Tom’s Cabin, one of the main themes of the story is how slaves lose their children because of death or auctions (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Stowe’s pain from the loss of her child made her deep understanding of what enslaved mothers felt when they lost their children (History.com Editors). She was able to pour all the emotion from her loss into her writing. This is part of what made Uncle Tom’s Cabin so great and Stowe such a successful anti-slavery writer.

The knowledge that Stowe gained from her visit to the South, meeting abolitionists, her brother, and escaped slaves, allowed her to write emotionally. She was able to get to the heart of the matter because she had talked to primary sources, and this knowledge made people around the U.S. feel bad about slavery. When confronted with the story of the punishments and pain that the main characters in Uncle Tom’s Cabin experienced there was no way that the readers could justify slavery. Her experiences in Cincinnati enabled her to use moral suasion in the form of writing to convince people to become anti-slavery.

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 caused Stowe to want to take action as an abolitionist and write a book. In 1850 Calvin Stowe was offered a position, as a professor, at Bowdoin College. This institution was located in Brunswick Maine. Calvin Stowe accepted and the Stowes and their children moved to Maine in 1850 (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Harriet Beecher Stowe was finally back in New England after spending eighteen years in Ohio. While the Stowes were moving the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was put into effect (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). This act greatly angered the anti-slavery Beecher family. In Boston, the preacher Edward Beecher, Stowe’s brother gave angry and powerful sermons that spoke out against the Fugitive Slave Law. Stowe visited Edward Beecher on her way to Maine and she was inspired by the anti-slavery speeches and sermons that he was giving. Stowe felt angrier than ever because of this act (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). 

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 restricted the rights of escaped slaves even more than before. It was passed because of pressure from the South. This act said that escaped slaves could not testify in court for themselves, nor could they have a trial by jury. Furthermore, people helping escaped slaves could be severely punished. There were also heavy consequences for law enforcement officials who refused to try to capture escaped slaves. To add to this a special court system was made that was dedicated to punishing fugitive slaves (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica). This act was extremely unfair and severe. Fortunately, it backfired on the South. It inspired many people to become abolitionists, and many states to pass personal liberty laws that counteracted this Fugitive Slave Law (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica). 

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 made Harriet’s anti-slavery feelings become intense. She had wanted to write an anti-slavery book for a while, and she felt that, because of the act, now was the time to take action (History.com Editors). Her brother Edward Beecher also encouraged her to write a book. He told Stowe to write something that would show the nation how horrible slavery was. Stowe replied that she would definitely write a book even though she had to take care of her children (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). Stowe was so mad about the Fugitive Slave Act that she was compelled to write in spite of being a mother of six. Edward Beecher promised to promote Stowe’s book and was overjoyed that she was writing a book that exposed the evils of slavery (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). This book that Stowe began writing was Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Something good came out of the horrible anti-slavery act because it inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe to write the book that changed the nation: Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Uncle Tom’s Cabin changed the world and was the book that made Harriet Beecher Stowe a famous abolitionist. Of the over thirty books that Stowe wrote, Uncle Tom’s Cabin was by far the greatest. Stowe decided to write this book in her anger after the Fugitive Slave Act and she first started writing it in 1850 (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). But, she did not have inspiration as to the full plot of the book. One day in 1851, this changed. Stowe was attending a communion service at the Brunswick First Parish Church. While sitting at the communion table she had a vision. Stowe saw a “beaten and dying slave” (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). Stowe thought that this vision was a sign from God, so she incorporated what she had seen into Uncle Tom’s Cabin. This vision gave Stowe all the ideas she needed to finish her book.

In 1851 Uncle Tom’s Cabin was first released. It was broken into many different segments, each one published weekly. The parts were published in an anti-slavery periodical by the name of The National Era (Cavendish). Uncle Tom’s Cabin in the form of a book was published soon after in 1852 (Cavendish). The book was an instant success. Within the first three months, 325,000 copies were sold (History.com Editors). Three million copies of Uncle Tom’s Cabin were sold in the years before the Civil War (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). The book was an instant success. It was a bestseller and it was one of the most popular books in history (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Uncle Tom’s Cabin’s success was not limited to the United States. It was sold widely in Europe and was translated into forty-two languages (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Uncle Tom’s Cabin was even made into a play that was extremely successful (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). People around the world were moved by this account of slavery. 

In Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the main character is an enslaved man named Uncle Tom. Throughout the book, he is sold twice and thus has three very different masters. The first master lives in Kentucky and is fairly kind. The second master is a “New Orleans Gentleman” (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). The third master is a cotton planter on the Mississippi River. This third master, Simon Legree, is the evil villain of the book. He eventually causes the death of Uncle Tom. Uncle Tom’s Cabin’s message is that slavery destroys slave masters and slaves (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors).

In the book, there are many instances of people being whipped and murdered which caused people to be angry at slavery (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). To play on the emotions of the readers, Stowe included a child named Eva in the book. Eva is killed in the book highlighting the atrocity of slavery (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). Stowe played up the effects of slavery on families and children especially to appeal to the emotions and morals of people (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). There is no way to justify the tearing apart of families and the deaths of children. This helped to make people hate slavery and think that it was a sin (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). 

Stowe used knowledge and intellect to write Uncle Tom’s Cabin and this is what caused it to make such a big impact. While in Cincinnati, Stowe did lots of research for the book by visiting plantations and talking to slaves and former slaves. Many of the atrocities depicted in Uncle Tom’s Cabin are based on events that happened in real life. Stowe wanted to make the book’s events a real as possible to make people as angry as possible (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). This helped to make Uncle Tom’s Cabin so successful at making people want to end slavery. Stowe proved that slavery is morally wrong in a format that was accessible to all. She incorporated her anti-slavery argument into a bestselling novel. Above all, Uncle Tom’s Cabin helped to solidify anti-slavery sentiment. Abolitionists loved it because it painted a picture of the evils of slavery, and the public loved it because of its plot. Southern slaveholders felt differently. They hated the way that Stowe painted slavery and felt threatened. This book caused many people to become abolitionists, but it also caused a big uproar in the south (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary). This conflict is part of what finally provoked the start of the Civil War. Stowe’s book had changed the nation. The ability of Stowe to write realistically made Uncle Tom’s Cabin a window into reality. Stowe, with her education and experiences, wrote from a highly informed position. Uncle Tom’s Cabin changed the world because its author wrote with emotion and knowledge, and it painted slavery as a crime against humanity.

In the postwar South, Stowe gave opportunities to former slaves. After the civil war, Stowe rented a cotton plantation in Florida. She made her son Fred Stowe the manager of this plantation so that he could run it. Next, she hired over one hundred former slaves (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). This gave people in Florida who had just been freed an opportunity to work. People who had been enslaved for all their life suddenly had no livelihood after the Civil War. Stowe gave them a way to provide for themselves. Stowe also bought an orange grove in Mandarin, Florida. Here she established a school for former slaves (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Stowe allowed people who had been denied the right to education a chance to learn. Education gave a lot to Stowe, and she wanted to give the gift of knowledge to recently freed African Americans. Education allows people to do much more than they could without it, so this school greatly benefited the former slaves. Stowe wrote the book Palmetto Leaves after visiting Florida. This book caused Florida to become a popular place for people to visit, and made Florida’s economy grow (“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major). The people living in Florida benefited from the tourism and prosperity that Stowe’s book brought. The work that Stowe did in Florida allowed former slaves to rise above their past and make a life for themselves.

In 1871 Stowe was beginning to feel her age. Her large house was starting to become unmanageable, so she decided to move into a smaller house. This house was near the residence of Samuel Clemens, also known as Mark Twain, the famous writer. She developed a friendship with him during her old age. Stowe was wealthy from her writing, so she was far better off than she had been in the past. But her bad health limited from doing all that she wanted. Originally, when she bought the Florida plantation, she had planned to spend her winters in a warm climate. But this proved to be unpractical. Because of this, Stowe spent her last years in cold Hartford, Connecticut, sad and lonely (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). Her wealth and national fame did not bring her happiness. By 1890 Stowe was confined to her bed. In 1896, at the age of eighty-five, Stowe died quietly in her sleep (“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors). The cause of the death of Harriet Beecher Stowe was most likely depression (“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary).

In conclusion, Harriet Beecher Stowe’s emotional writing that came from a place of knowledge, allowed her to be a successful abolitionist and spread anti-slavery sentiment. Her greatest accomplishment was writing the bestselling book Uncle Tom’s Cabin. But over the course of her life, she did many things that improved the world. She was successful for many reasons, and her success started from the moment she was born. Stowe was born into a fairly wealthy family who believed that women should be given an extensive education. Young Stowe began school at the age of five, and when she did she discovered her love of learning. Throughout her schooling, Stowe exhibited intelligence far greater than that of her classmates. She had a love for learning and started writing at an early age. Stowe’s education opened her eyes to the world and allowed caused her to begin writing. She was successful because her world view and knowledge allowed her to be persuasive in her writing. Without her long education, Stowe would have never been able to write so expressively and emotionally. It is very possible that if Stowe had not gotten the education that she did, she would have never been able to write so well and thus would not have been a successful abolitionist. In Ohio, many factors helped Stowe to write the book that made her famous: Uncle Tom’s Cabin. She was in the middle of the anti-slavery movement and met many key abolitionist figures that helped to solidify her views. In Cincinnati, Stowe had many of the experiences that gave her the background for Uncle Tom’s Cabin. She met with escaped slaves and visited the slave plantations that would provide the setting for her book. After the Fugitive Slave Act was passed, she finally had the inspiration for her book and she immediately started writing it, even though she was a busy mother. Stowe’s genius was the way she was able to spread her abolitionist message in a form that was accessible to all. Uncle Tom’s Cabin was read by millions because Stowe was such a captivating writer. The book’s plot was well developed and exciting, but it had a much deeper meaning. Stowe used her creativity and intelligence to convey her anti-slavery message and convince the nation of the evils of slavery. Stowe was also successful because of the emotion that she put into her writing. The atrocities and family separations, based in fact, convinced the entire world that slavery was horrible in a way that abstract ethical arguments could not. Other abolitionists gave speeches and wrote articles. But Stowe’s audience was even greater because she spoke out against slavery in the form of a bestselling novel. Stowe even used some of the money she got from her books to benefit former slaves in Florida. She dedicated her life to improving life for African Americans and to making people be treated equally. There are many lessons that can be learned from Harriet Beecher Stowe. She never gave up, through times of poverty and death. She saw inequality and did her best to lessen it. Stowe cared about humans, no matter who they were. Harriet Beecher Stowe made the Earth a better place to live in and her legacy will never be forgotten.

Works Cited

Biography.com Editors. “Harriet Beecher Stowe Biography.” The Biography.com website, A&E Television Networks, 20 June 2019, www.biography.com/activist/harriet-beecher-stowe. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, editor. “Fugitive Slave Acts.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 1 Aug. 2019, www.britannica.com/event/Fugitive-Slave-Acts. Accessed 14 Nov. 2019.

—. “Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 7 Aug. 2019, www.britannica.com/biography/Harriet-Beecher-Stowe. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

“Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Authors and Artists for Young Adults, vol. 53, Gale, 2003. Gale In Context: Biography, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/K1603001110/BIC?u=massw&sid=BIC&xid=929f5761. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

“Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe.” Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936. Gale In Context: Biography, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/BT2310002619/BIC?u=massw&sid=BIC&xid=5b9239a2. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Almanac of Famous People, Gale, 2011. Gale In Context: Biography, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/K1601057705/BIC?u=massw&sid=BIC&xid=d204ca6a. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

“Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe.” Major Authors and Illustrators for Children and Young Adults, Gale, 2002. Gale In Context: Biography, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/K1617001882/BIC?u=massw&sid=BIC&xid=c057f827. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

History.com Editors. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published.” History, A&E Television Networks, 27 July 2019, www.history.com/this-day-in-history/uncle-toms-cabin-is-published. Accessed 24 Nov. 2019.

“Meet the Beacher Family.” Harriet Beecher Stowe House, stowehousecincy.org/meet-the-beecher-family.html. Accessed 4 Nov. 2019.

Michals, Debra. “Harriet Beecher Stowe.” National Women’s History Museum, 2017, www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/harriet-beecher-stowe. Accessed 4 Nov. 2019.

Cavendish, Richard. “Birth of Harriet Beecher Stowe.” History Today, June 2011, www.historytoday.com/archive/months-past/birth-harriet-beecher-stowe. Accessed 28 Nov. 2019. 

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